Lactation and pregnancy go hand in hand. Lactation is necessary, and expected after a woman has a baby. However, post-pregnancy is not the only time that women lactate. There have been several instances where woman who are not pregnant have lactated. The production of milk before a woman is pregnant is definitely alarming. However, it is not physically dangerous and can happen to any woman who is of child-bearing age. This is usually between 16 and 40 years of age. There are a number of reasons for lactation that is not related to pregnancy. We will discuss them below.
- Changes in Hormones: There are a number of hormonal changes that naturally occur within a woman’s lifetime. The body responds to these changes in a number of ways. One of the indicators of hormonal changes can be lactation without pregnancy. Prolactin is the hormone that produces lactation. If the amount of prolactin rises above its normal limits in a woman’s body, the breasts will produce milk, even when the woman is not pregnant.
- Nipple Stimulation: The breasts are part of a woman’s reproductive system, and are designed to play their part after a woman has delivered a baby. However, the breasts are prompted by stimulation. When a woman’s nipples are sucked on a regular basis, the brain interprets the sucking as a sign that milk needs to be produced. As a result, the mammary glands will begin milk production. Women who are not striving to get pregnant but desire to nurse a baby, take advantage of this natural phenomenon so they can breastfeed their adopted baby. This helps them to form an authentic bond with the child, which usually occurs between the baby and his natural mother. Studies have indicated that sucking the nipples eight to ten times daily for 20 minutes for a three week period can bring about lactation.
- Miscarriage: Some women will lactate even after having a miscarriage. Miscarriage is also brought on by hormonal changes, which can bring on lactation. There are instances where the miscarriage is not immediately detected. Some women experience what appears to be heavy menstrual bleeding, but is actually the loss of the fetus. When this occurs, the reason for lactation is not clear. Women are advised to consult their doctor in a situation like this.
- Drugs: There are medications that can bring on lactation, such as Sulpiride, Reglan and Domperidone. These medicines block dopamine and increase prolactin levels. A rise in prolactin results in lactation. An increased dosage of these medications is recommended when a mother is not producing enough milk to adequately feed her baby.Herbs: There are also certain herbs that can prompt the breast to produce milk, even when a woman is not pregnant. Anise seed, fenugreek, fennel, blessed thistle, cumin seed, hops and goat’s rue are examples of herb that promote lactation. Therefore, it’s important to only take these natural supplements in the recommended dosage.
The clavicle, or collarbone, has the important job of connecting the main central skeleton to the shoulder joint. Hence, clavicle pain can be a major source of discomfort and unease. Although the clavicle supports the shoulder joint and connects it to the central skeleton, it is a bone that has relatively few muscle attachments.
What Might Cause Pain in the Collarbone ?
Clavicular Fracture – A common cause of pain in the collarbone is a fracture of the clavicle. The clavicle is an extremely common place for a fracture, as clavicle fractures make up almost five percent of all bone fractures. Many different things may cause a clavicular fracture. Outstretching an upper extremity may cause one, as the stress of maintaining the attachment between the main skeleton and the shoulder joint may be too much for the clavicle to bear, causing it to give in.
Another common cause of clavicular fractures are falls where the body lands on the shoulder. A direct blow, direct force, or trauma of any kind to the clavicle can also cause a fracture, leading to great pain in and around surrounding areas.
Other Causes of Collarbone Pain – The acromioclavicular joint leads to the junction of clavicle and shoulder joint and if this joint is injured, it will cause pain in the region of the clavicle. Another possible cause, osteolysis of the clavicle, is an affliction where hyperactivity of the osteoclasts causes active absorption of the bone. Injuries to the ribs, rotator cuff, or chest can also cause pain that seems to emit from the clavicle. Additionally, bursitis or other bone diseases may lead to collarbone pain. Very rarely, clavicle pain may be a result of sternoclavicular dislocation or clavicle degeneration.
Treatment for Pain in the Clavicle
The treatment for collarbone pain will vary depending on the source. If the pain is caused by a clavicular fracture, the treatment will mostly involve using a sling to support the extremity and resting the affected arm.
In most cases, pain killers along with use of a sling will allow the bone to heal. In about 5-10 percent of fractures, surgery is necessary. Surgery is employed in cases that involve complications such as skin penetration, comminution with separation, non-joining of bone fragments after several months, or shortening of the clavicle indicating a forward shoulder. The typical surgical procedure entails open reduction internal plate fixation. This is a procedure where a titanium or steel plate is anatomically sculpted and fixed to the bone along the superior aspect with the assistance of screws.
However, there are many drawbacks to surgery as a treatment of clavicle fractures. Patients are at risk of untoward neurological symptoms, infection, or the failure of bone fragments to unify. The healing that occurs post-surgery will depend on many different factors, such as the health and age of the patient, the complexity and location of the break, or the level of bone displacement severity. An adult recovering from this condition can expect it to take anywhere from twenty to thirty days.